| |
. .

- *

. 2001. 3. . 3858.

.36 , .   . (conventus) , , 1. (de plano), , 2. ( ) , , , 3. , , . , 31 , , 20 , .37 4. . , , , 5. , , .

, . , . (D. 50. 13. 1), 6. , , , ,   -. - 7. III . . ., , , , 8. , ( ), 9.

, , .38 . , 10, VIII (De omnibus tribunalibus), 10 11. , - De officio, , , 12.   40 13. . , , , , 14. , , , , , 15.

:

, . , . ( ) , , . 1. ( ) , , : ,   ( ) . () . 2. () , (), , , . 3. , - , - , , , , , . ( ) () , , ,  ,   , , 16. () , , , , () . 4. ? . , , , , . 5. () .   , , , , , , , , () , . .39 - , , () . 6. , , () ,   , , . 7. , ; . 8. () , , , , . 9. , , 17 , , . 10. , , , , () , ( ) , 18. : , , , , 13. , . 14. , - , . , , , . 15. , , . , 19.

.40 . , , , , 20. , , , , ,   ,   , 21. . , , (D. 50. 13. 1. 7).   , (D. 50. 13. 1. 45). ,   , .

, , . (opifices) - (artifices)22  , (artes sordidae). , ( .  A. C.) , 23. , , , , . , , 24.

.41 , , , , , , , (comites), -. . , , , , 25. , -? , : .

, . , , , , 26. , , (merces), , (honorarium honor) . , , , ( ) . , . , . , , , 27. . . ( , ) (merces) , , . , , extra ordinem. merces ,   . - , , , II . . . .42 , . extra ordinem , . 28.

, ( ) , 29.

. , : cognitio extra ordinem. , , . , , , - , , 30. , , : , , - , 31. , , , , (cognoscere) (D. 1. 18. 9).

(D. 50. 13. 1. 14): , , (cessant partes praetoris vel praesidis). , . , . partes praetoris (praesidis, iudicis) . , 32. cessant partes praetoris vel praesidis , , . : (: )33. ? , , , .43 cessant partes praetoris (vel praesidis). (in integrum restitutio). () ,  ,  : () , ? , 1. : () , , , , 3. ( ), , , (D. 4. 4. 16)34. , . , (actio doli) , , . , , , (tunc praetoris partes necessariae sunt), (D. 2. 14. 7. 19). , , . partes praetoris , , (D. 4. 4. 11. 2; 28. 5. 23. 1; 40. 4. 20).

partes praesidis. , : (quae sunt partes praesidis), (D. 1. 6. 2). , (cognoscere) , , . , , : , , , , : , , : , , () , : , . , (D. 1. 18. 9)35. , (quid sit partium suarum), , : , (cognoscere) .

, , . , , , , , , .44 . (D. 50. 13. 1. 5): , , (cognoscere) . , . , cognitio extra ordinem (D. 50. 13. 1. 9)36. (petitiones mutuae), . . , 37, , , extra ordinem, , , 38.

, , . , , 39, . , ,   . . , : , , 40. . . , , , 41.

, , , , , , , .

, , . 42, : , 43, , , , , .45 - () , , , - , . 1. , , (C. X. 53 (52). 6 = CTh. XIII. 3. 3; . CTh. XIII 3. 1)44. , 45, , . , , , : , (calumnia)46, 47. .

, (χρήσιμοι) (D. 27. 1. 6. 11), artes necessariae (CTh. XIII. 3. 18 = C. XII. 40. 8)48. , 49. , (D. 50. 13. 11). , . , 50. , , , 51. , , , 52 , .46 53. , , , , . , , , - - 54, - (D. 50; 13. 1. 13). , , - -55. , , . , 56, . . , 57. , , (D. 27. 1. 6. 2)58, , -, , extra ordinem59.

, , (ludi litterarii magistri), (librarii), (notarii) (calculatores sive tabularii) (D. 50. 13. 1. 6). , , . , , (10. 62. 4), , (C. X. 53 (52). 4). , , librarii quoque qui docere possint (D. 50. 6. 7 (6)). , 60 magister institutor litterarum , 61. , .47  6, (. . ) . tabulae  , , -62. , calculator sive tabularius , , , , 63. , , , 64. ,  6 . cognitio extra ordinem? , (usurpatum est), (D. 50. 13. 1. 6). , , - . . , , 65.   66, , - . , , , III IV ., ( ) : , , () , , , (-) . (D. 50. 4. 18. 30)67. , item () id est . 68. , . , magister , , , , - , 69. , , , numerus clausus, 70. , , ( ) .48 71.

, , , . , , , . , (D. 50. 13. 1. 7). , , 72. , , (Ep. 88. 20). , :   (litterator),     (Flor. 20)73. , , , , . , , , , , -, . congnitio extra ordinem , , . , ( , ) 74. , - 75.

(comites), , (D. 50. 13. 1. 8). , 76, , . , . , , (D. 19. 22. 19. 10). , , .49 , 77. , (paedagogi), , 78, , 79. , , 80. - , .

, , , , , ( .  . .) (D. 50. 13. 1. 9),   . , (D. 50. 13. 1. 913). 81 , , , , , . , , . , , , . , 82, 83. , 84. , - , , . , .50 , . , , ( 10 . )85, , , 86. , , , , , - 87, , . , , , , , , .

, ,   , , , . , , -, (D. 50. 13. 1. 14), , petitiones mutuae, . . , (D. 50, 13. 1. 15). , - . - , 88. - , : - extra ordinem, (. . , ). - - . : , , , 89? , - , , , 90. .51 :   , ; . , , , . , - , - ,   . . , - , , . , . , , , , , , 91. . , . , -, , 92. . - . , . , , , - , . - 93.

, . , , - (pater familias), 94. , - , - , 95. , . , , , , , , . - , , , , .52 , : , (artes sordidae)96. , -, , .

- , 97. , , (2 pr. 3).

  , : , , , , . , (Tusc. 3. 1. 2; . . ). , , , , , . : , (Germ. 20. 1)98. : 99, , . , , , , 100. , 101, . . , 102. , .

(NA. 12. 1). , , , , (12. 1. 12). , (12. 1. 14), , .53 (12. 1. 11) (12. 1. 17). , . , ,   , ,   (12. 1. 15)103. (ad earum indolem) , , , , , - (12. 1. 16). , 104,   105. , , , , , , , , . , , , , - (De benef. 3. 29. 47). , , , , , , - (De benef. 3. 29. 7). , , , , , ,   , -  (5. 4), . . , . , , , (Gyn. 2. 19; . Quint. Inst. Or. 1. 1. 4). - , 106. , , .

, , . , , , , , 107. ,  ,  .54 (nativae pietatis), , , , , (Aul. Gell. 12. 1. 23). , , , (pietas). , . - 108. , , , 109. - . (nostrorum), , , , (Ep. 60. 1)110. , , (- ) (Sent. 659)111. , , , (CIL 6. 20042)112.

22 ( ) 40  ( ) 113. , , . 114, , (the closest family)115. .55 , - , ,   officium pietatis officium pium116. , - , . , , - (Suet. Nero. 50), , , - (Suet. Dom. 17. 3)117. ( ) piissimae, pientissimae, sanctissimae118. . , pius , , , 119. , - , . - : , . . , , 120. - . , - , 121.

- : . (D. 40. 2. 11; 13), - 20 () , : ( ) , , (),   , , -, - , 122. (iustus affectus  D. 40. 2. 16 pr.), . , -, , , .56 123. ( ), , pietas124. , , officium pietatis 125. , , , (D. 26. 10). - (pro alio postulare  D. 50. 17. 2 pr.), , . , , : , , , , , , . - . , (D. 26. 10. 1. 7)126. , , , (pietas) . - , , pietas.

, , , - 127.

, , -, , , , , pietas, , , , (Pro Plancio. 29)128.

- , 129. , .57 (Inst. or. 3. 2. 5). , (1. 2. 15)130. , , , , , (pietas) (2. 9. 12). , , officium pietatis131. , - (aut affinitate aliqua aut propinquitate coniunctos), , , , (praeceptorem) , 132   (fautores atque rectores) , (Nero. 35. 45). , (in exteros), . . , (Nero. 36. 1)133. , , -, (Pl. Ep. 5. 16. 3)134.

, -, - , , , .

, , , , , :   ( , ),   pietas ( ).

, - , , pietas135, , , 136 , . , , , .

, , .


.58 WET-NURSE AT THE COURT OF A ROMAN GOVERNOR

A. L. Smyshlyayev

The so-called Ulpianus fragment (D. 50. 1. 13. 1) indicates that governors had the habit of looking into the claims for payments submitted by professors of liberal arts, physicians, elementary school teachers, comites (i. e., apparently, professors assistants and paedagogi) and wet-nurses in a way of extraordinary procedure. As Ulpianus terminology shows, governors investigated such cases personally, without the aid of the appointed judges (iudices pedanei). The question is why the governors permanently overloaded with work, who even had to resort to accelerated procedure in cases of grave crimes, had constantly to look into paltry claims of such representatives of lower strata as elementary school teachers and wet-nurses. In G. Coppolas opinion, the professionals mentioned in Ulpianus fragment belonged to a privileged group of hired workers. Originally they had to turn with their claims to regular courts, but from the 2nd c. on they enjoyed special legal support and extraordinary hearing of their cases. Under such conditions the plaintiff had good chances of winning the case even if the respondent was much richer and more influential.

The fact that such privileges were granted to professors and physicians was undoubtedly in accord with general imperial policy of granting privileges to people whose labour was considered of special usefulness for the society. But why were the same rights given to elementary school teachers, paedagogi and wet-nurses who had no other privileges and apparently were not included among the people, whose services were of high social importance? The answer may lie in the special position they had in Roman family and Roman system of values. Wet-nurses and paedagogi, to a certain extent, played the role of parents in respect to the children they were in charge of, and together with them constituted kind of surrogate family within the familia itself. According to Roman views the teacher was also seen as a substitute of his pupils father. Both wet-nurses and paedagogi were connected with the children by the links of kindred love and duty (pietas) considered to be the basis of all virtues in Rome (Cic. Pro Plancio 29). Defending their interests in court could be seen as defending pietas. Looking into the claims of destitute teachers and wet-nurses personally, the governor demonstrated care and attention to the foundations of the Roman society.


  • * , . ( . . ), .
  • 1 (observare itaque eum oportet, ut sit ordo aliquis postulationum), , - (D. 1. 16. 9. 4). , , . , III . . . (. . ) 1804 , (P. Jale 61. II. 26). , , , - (Peachin M. Judex vice Caesaris. Deputy Emperors and the Administration of Justice during the Principate. Stuttgart, 1996. P. 82. Not. 328; Macmullen R. Roman Governments Response to Crisis AD 235337. New HavenLondon, 1976. P. 77; Burton G. P. Proconsuls, Assizes and the Administration of Justice under the Empire // JRS. 1975. 65. P. 102).  . Horstkotte H. Die Strafrechtspflege in den Provinzen der römischen Kaiserzeit zwischen hegemonialer Ordnungsmacht und lokaler Autonomie // Lokale Autonomie und römische Ordnungsmacht in den kaiserzeitlichen Provinzen vom 1. bis 3. Jahrhundert / Hrsg. von V. Eck. München, 1999. S. 310.
  • 2, , de plano (D. 2. 12. 9; 38. 15. 2. 2; 48. 1. 12. 1; 48. 18. 18. 10). . , Burton G. Government and Provinces // The Roman World / Ed. J. Watcher. V. 1. L.N. Y., 1987. P. 430 f.
  • 3Cm. Humbert M. La juridiction du Préfet dEgypte dAuguste a Dioclétien // Burdeau F. et al. Aspects de lEmpire romain. (Travaux et recherches de la Faculté de Droit et des Sciences économiques de Paris. Série Sciences historiques.  1). P., 1964. P. 127 suiv., 140 suiv.; . . Civilis dominatio:  // . 1997.  3. . 30, 34; Purcell N. The Arts of Government // The Oxford History of the Classical World / Ed. J. Boardman et al. Oxf.N. Y., 1986. P. 577; Millar F. The Emperor in the Roman World (31 BC  AD 337). L., 1977. P. 228, 240; Halfmann H. Itinera principum. Geschichte und Typologie der Kaiserreisen im Römischen Reich. Stuttgart, 1986. S. 154 f.; Peachin. Op. cit. P. 79 ff.
  • 4Humbert. Op. cit. P. 127 suiv.
  • 5 , , , .
  • 6 . , (Bernard A. La rémunération des professions libérales en droit romain classique. P., 1936), , , , .
  • 7 , (Ed. pr. 7. 66, . 7. 3a; . . 60). (Marrou H.-J. Histoire de lEducation dans lantiquité. P., 1971. P. 392; Bonner S. F. Education in Ancient Rome. From the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny. L., 1977. P. 147 ff.; Harris W. V. Ancient Literacy. L., 1989. P. 238). , (Cribiore R. Writing, Teachers and Students in Graeco-Roman Egypt. Atlanta, 1996. P. 16). -, - , , ( ) . , (Bradley K. R. Sexual Regulations in Wet-Nursing Contracts from Roman Egypt // Klio. 1980. 62. P. 321 f., 324. Gourevitch D. Le mal dêtre femme. La femme et la médecine dans la Rome antique. P., 1984. P. 258. Gardner J. Women in Roman Law and Society. LondonSydney, 1986. P. 243 f.).
  • 8 , , (Oros. 7. 3. 6). (obscura initia) , , (Ann. 3. 66. 4). (rem indignissimam  Virg. 3. 2).  . Bonner. Op. cit. P. 35, 46; Harris. Op. cit. P. 236; Visky K. Geistige Arbeit und die artes liberales in den Quellen des römischen Rechts. Budapest, 1977. S. 32. - (Kampen N. Image and Status. Roman working Women in Ostia. B., 1981. P. 109 f.; Bradley K. R. Discovering the Roman Family. Studies in Roman Social History. N. Y.  Oxf., 1991. P. 19 f., 25; Günther R. Frauenarbeit  Frauenbindung. Untersuchungen zu unfreien und freigelassenen Frauen in den stadtrömischen Inschriften. München, 1987. S. 79).
  • 9, , , . IV . . . (CTh. 1. 29. 2 = C. 1. 55. 1).
  • 10   De variis et extraordinariis cognitionibus et si iudex litem suam fecisse dicetur (D. 50. 13).
  • 11D. 26. 10. 7. 2; 50. 13. 1. 10 et 12.
  • 12Jörs. Domitius Ulpianus // RE. 1903. Hlbd 9. Sp. 1454 f.; Krüger P. Geschichte der Quellen und Literatur Römischen Rechts. 2. Aufl. MünchenLeipzig, 1912. S. 247; Wlassak M. Zum römischen Provinzialprozess. Wien. 1919. S. 69; Schiller A. A. The Jurists and Praefects of Rome // RIDA. 1949. 3. P. 338. Not. 83; DellOro A. I libri nella giurisprudenza romana. Milano, 1960. P. 271 s.; Honoré T. Ulpian. Oxf., 1982. P. 157; Guarino A. Storia del diritto romano. 9 ed. Napoli, 1993. P. 483.
  • 13. Lenel O., Palingenesia iuris civilis. V. 2. Lipsiae, 1889. Col. 9921001 (fr. 22542295).
  • 14Schulz F. Geschichte der römischen Rechtswissenschaft. Weimar, 1961. S. 329, 348. Anm. 4.
  • 15DellOro. Op. cit. P. 271 s.; Guarino A. Gli specialisti e il diritto romano // Labeo. 1970. 16. P. 329; Honoré. Op. cit. P. 96 f., 103, 157, 175 ff.; Visky. Op. cit. S. 21 f.; Coppola G. Cultura e potere. Il lavoro intellettuale nel mondo romano. (Pubblicazioni della Facoltà di Giurisprudenza della Universita di Messina.  183). Milano, 1994. P. 212.
  • 16 , exorcizare (. A Latin Dictionary / Ed. C. T. Lewis. Oxf., 1998. S. v. Exorcizo. P. 690). , . , .
  • 17 .
  • 18 .
  • 19Praeses provinciae de mercedibus ius dicere solet, sed praeceptoribus tantum studiorum liberalium, liberalia autem studia accipimus, quae Graeci ἐλευθέρια appellant: rhetores continebuntur, grammatici, geometrae. 1. Medicorum quoque eadem causa est quae professorum, nisi quod iustior, cum hi salutis hominum, illi studiorum curam agant: et ideo his quoque extra ordinem ius dici debet. 2. Sed et obstetricem audiant, quae utique medicinam exhibere videtur. 3. Medicos fortassis quis accipiet etiam eos, qui alicuius partis corporis vel certi doloris sanitatem pollicentur: ut puta si auricularius, si fistulae vel dentium. Non tamen si incantavit, si inprecatus est, si, ut vulgari verbo impostorum utar, si exorcizavit: non sunt ista medicinae genera, tametsi sint, qui hos sibi profuisse cum praedicatione adfirment 4. An et philosophi professorum numero sint? Et non putem, non quia non religiosa res est, sed quia hoc primum profiteri eos oportet mercennariam operam spernere. 5. Proinde ne iuris quidem civilis professoribus ius dicent: est quidem res sanctissima civilis sapientia, sed quae pretio nummario non sit aestimanda nec dehonestanda, dum in iudicio honor petitur; qui in ingressu sacramenti offerri debuit. Quaedam enim tametsi honeste accipiantur, inhoneste tamen petuntur. 6. Ludi quoque litterarii magistris licet non sint professores, tamen usurpatum est, ut his quoque ius dicatur: iam et librariis et notariis et calculatoribus sive tabulariis. 7. Sed ceterarum artium opificibus sive artificibus, quae sunt extra litteras vel notas positae, nequaquam extra ordinem ius dicere praeses debebit. 8. Sed et si comites salarium petant, idem iuris est, quod in professoribus placet. 9. Sed et adversus ipsos omnes cognoscere praeses debet, quia ut adversus advocates adeantur, divi fratres rescripserunt 10. In honorariis advocatorum ita versari iudex debet, ut pro modo litis proque advocati facundia et fori consuetudine et iudicii, in quo erat acturus, aestimationem adhibeat, dummodo licitum honorarium quantitas non egrediatur: ita enim rescripto imperatoris nostri et patris eius continetur. Verba rescripti ita se habent: Si Iulius Maternus, quem patronum causae tuae esse voluisti, fidem susceptam exhibere paratus est, eam dumtaxat pecuniam, quae modum legitimum egressa est, repetere debes. 13. Divus Severus ab heredibus advocati mortuo eo prohibuit mercedem repeti, quia per ipsum non steterat, quo minus causam ageret. 14. Ad nutricia quoque officium praesidis vel praetoris devenit: namque nutrices ob alimoniam infantium apud praesides quod sibi debetur petunt. Sed nutricia eo usque producemus, quoad infantes uberibus aluntur: ceterum post haec cessant partes praetoris vel praesidis. 15. Haec omnia si apud praesides petantur, videamus an de mutuis petitionibus possunt praesides cognoscere. Et putem debere admitti.
  • 20Marotta V. Multa de iure sanxit. Aspetti della politica del diritto di Antonino Pio. (Universita di Firenze Pubblicazioni della Facoltà di Giurisprudenza.  64). Milano, 1988. P. 145 s.
  • 21Marotta. Op. cit. P. 146.
  • 22 , , , . opifices et artifices (De Robertis F. I rapporti di lavoro nel diritto romano. Milano, 1946. P. 11. Not. 6, 7; p. 12. Not. 2).
  • 23 (D. 50. 14. 3), , , (Lenel. Op. cit. Col. 9991000, fr. 22892290), : , (sordidum) ( . ). , , (D. 50. 13. 1. 45), , , , . , , , (opifices) (artifices), . , ,  (Opifices omnes in sordida arte versantur  Cic. Off. 1. 42. 150). , ,   . : artes quae sunt extra litteras vel notas positae (D. 50. 13. 1. 7). ( : )  (. Michel J. Gratuité en droit romain. Bruxelles, 1962. P. 204). , , (Veyne P. The Roman Empire // A History of Private Life. V. 1 / Ed. P. Veyne. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Cambr. Mass.L., 1992. P. 7 f., 19).
  • 24 , (Bernard. Op. cit. P. 45 suiv.; Michel. Op. cit. P. 199, 210 suiv.; Christes J. Bildung und Gesellschaft. Die Einschätzung der Bildung und ihrer Vermittler in der griechisch-römischen Antike. Darmstadt, 1975. S. 242 ff.; Visky. Op. cit. S. 27 ff.; Marotta. Op. cit. P. 132 s.; Hahn J. Der Philosoph und die Gesellschaft Selbstverständnis, öffentliches Auftreten und populäre Erwartungen in der hohen Kaiserzeit. Stuttgart, 1989. S. 73, 105).
  • 25Crook J. A. Law and Life of Rome. 1967. P. 204 f.; . Macqueron J. Le travail des hommes libres dans lantiquité romain. 2 ed. Aix en Provence, 1958. P. 173 suiv.
  • 26   , , ,   (locatio-conductio).
  • 27 . (Op. cit., pass.). . Klingmüller F. Honorarium // RE. 1913. Bd VIII. Sp. 2270 ff.; Below K. H. Der Arzt im römischen Recht (Münchener Beiträge zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte. Ht. 37). München, 1953. S. 57 ff.; Michel. Op. cit. P. 198 suiv.; Watson A. The Law of Obligations in the Later Roman Republic. Oxf., 1965. P. 109 f.; Visky K. Esclavage et artes liberales à Rome // RIDA. 1968. 15. P. 475 suiv.; Buti J. La cognitio extra ordinem: da Augusto a Diocleziano // ANRW. II. 14. B.N. Y., 1982. P. 32 ss.; Pugliese G. Istituzioni di diritto romano. Padova, 1986. P. 381.
  • 28Coppola. Op. cit. P. 14 s., 211 ss., 243 ss., 251 ss., 285 ss., 563 s.
  • 29 . . , , . , , (. Marrou. Op. cit. P. 437 suiv.; Kaster R. A. Guardians of Language. The Grammarian and Society in Late Antiquity. BerkeleyLos AngelesLondon, 1988. P. 229).
  • 30Kaser M. Das römische Zivilprozessrecht. München, 1966. S. 346, 363, 371 ff., 405 ff.; Garnsey P. Social Status and Legal Privilege in the Roman Empire. Oxf., 1970. P. 5, 92, 204 f., 218; Coppola. Op. cit. P. 258 s., 285; Robinson O. F. The Sources of Roman Law. Problems and Methods for Ancient Historians. L.N. Y., 1997. P. 90 ff.
  • 31Kaser M. Op. cit. S. 344 f., 362, 370; Garnsey. Op. cit. P. 204.
  • 32 . - . 2 . ., 1997. S. v. Pars. 3. . 394; . Oxford Latin Dictionary / Ed. P. G. W. Glare. Oxf., 1988. S. v. Pars, 910. P. 1300 f.
  • 33, , : de toute façon, dans la suite, lintervention du préteur ou du gouverneur cesse (Michel. Op. cit. P. 208 suiv. Not. 38); y después cesa ya la intervention del pretor o del gobernador (El Digesta de Justiniano. T. III / Ed. A. DOrs et al. Pamplona, 1975. P. 840).
  • 34In causae cognitione etiam hoc versabitur, num forte alia actio possit competere citra in integrum restitutionem. Nam si communi auxilio et mero iure munitus sit, non debet ei tribui extraordinarium auxilium 1. Item relatum est apud Labeonem, si minor circumscriptus societatem coierit vel etiam donationis causa, nullum esse societatem nec inter maiores quidem et ideo cessare partes praetoris 3. Et generaliter probandum est, ubi contractus non valet, pro certa praetorem se non debere interponere.
  • 35Generaliter quotiens princeps ad praesides provinicarum remittit negotia per rescriptiones, veluti eum qui provinciae praeest adire poteris vel cum hac adiectione is aestimabit, quid sit partium suarum, non imponitur necessitas proconsuli vel legato suscipiendae cognitionis, quamvis non sit adiectum is aestimabit quid sit partium suarum: sed is aestimare debet, utrum ipse cognoscat an iudicem dare debeat.
  • 36. ,  15 ; ,  9 (Op. cit. S. 119 f.).
  • 37 . . . 2- . ., 1999. . 243.
  • 38, , (cognoscere praeses debet), , , , (iudex), (D. 50, 13, 1. 10). , iudex datus, (Kaser. Op. cit. S. 362. Anm. 7).
  • 39Mommsen Th. Römisches Strafrecht. Lpz, 1899. S. 358 ff.; Nippel W. Public Order in ancient Rome. Cambr., 1995. P. 107 ff., 112; . . . . 27 .
  • 40Siber H. Operae liberales // Jherings Jahrbücher für die Dogmatik des bürgerlichen Rechts. 19391940. S. 169 ff. , .
  • 41Klami H. T. Mandatum and Labour in Roman Law // ZSS. 1989. 119. P. 580. . (. cit. P. 255).
  • 42 , (C. X. 53 (52); CTh. XIII. 3).
  • 43 (. ) , .
  • 44Medicos et maxime archiatros vel ex archiatris, grammaticos et professores alios litterarum una cum uxoribus et filiis nec non etiam rebus, quas in civitatibus suis possident, ab omni functione et ab omnibus muneribus civilibus vel publicis immunes esse praecipimus neque in provinciis hospites recipere nec ullo fungi munere nec ad iudicium deduct vel exhiberi vel iniuriam pali, ut, si quis eos vexaverit, poena arbitrio iudicis plectetur. Mercedes etiam eorum et salaria reddi iubemus, quo facilius liberalitas studiis et memoratis artibus multos instituant (333 . . .).
  • 45  . Below. Op. cit. S. 22 f.; Marrou. Op. cit. P. 434 suiv.; Bonner. Op. cit. P. 157 ff.; Hadot I. Arts libéraux et philosophie dans la pensée antique. P., 1984. P. 221 suiv., 230 suiv.; Kaster. Op. cit. P. 223 ff.; Marotta. Op. cit. P. 93 ss.; Coppola. Op. cit. P. 412 ss.
  • 46 calumnia (. . ), , ( . (, , ). ., 1989. S. V. Calumnia. . 59).
  • 47, , .
  • 48 I . . . . , , , , , : (utilissimus civitati)  , (Inst. or. 7. 1. 38)?
  • 49Kaster. Op. cit. P. 225. Not. 114.
  • 50. D. 50. 13. 1. 1; 50. 13. 1. 4; 50. 13. 1. 5; 50. 13. 1. 6; 50. 13. 1. 8.
  • 51 , , ( .  . .) , (D. 50. 13. 1 pr.; 50. 13. 1. 1). , , (. Coppola. Op. cit. P. 274, 286).
  • 52 , (D. 50. 13. 1 pr.), , . (Inst. or. 1. 10. 3449) , (nullo modo sine geometria esse possit orator).
  • 53Marotta. Op. cit. P. 143; Kaster. Op. cit. P. 22 ff., 27, 29 f., 225; Harris. Op. cit. P. 246 f., 250; Coppola. Op. cit. P. 563, 575; Agusta-Boularot S. Les références épigraphiques aux grammatici et Γραμματικοὶ de lEmpire romain (Ier siècle av. J. C.  IV siècle ap. J. C.) // MEFRA. 1994. 106. P. 738.
  • 54 , , , , , , (P. 4. 1. 25 Helmreich).
  • 55Bernard. Op. cit. P. 62 suiv.; Guarino. Gli specialisti P. 328; Marotta. Op. cit. P. 145; Coppola. Op. cit. P. 275; Wacke A. Die Anerkennung der Medizin als ars liberalis und der Honoraranspruch des Arztes // ZSS. 1996. 113. S. 392. . H. A.  // . . 1 / . . . . ., 1985. . 270 .
  • 56Scarborough J. Roman Medicine. L., 1969. P. 108, 115, 121.
  • 57 , , (Booth A. D. The Schooling of Slaves in First-Century Rome // TAPA. 1979. 109. P. 14 f.; Kaster. Op. cit. P. 22 ff., 29).
  • 58 . , (. cit. P. 228).
  • 59 , (numerus clausus), (D. 27. 1. 6. 10), , , , , -. numerus.
  • 60 : Diokletians Preisedikt. Texte und Kommentare / Hrsg. von S. Lauffer. B., 1971.
  • 61 50 (7. 66), (calculatori) 75 ⅻ (7. 67), (notario) 75 ⅻ (7. 68), - (librario sibe antiquario) 50 ⅻ (7. 69).
  • 62D. 11. 6. 7. 4; Sen. Ep. 88. 10; Oxford Latin Dictionary / Ed. P. G. W. Glare. Oxf., 1988. S. v. Tabularius. P. 1899.
  • 63. librarius sibe antiquarius (Ed. pr. 7. 69), orator sive sofista (Ed. pr. 7. 71).
  • 64 , (exceptor) (locatio-conductio) (D 19. 2. 19. 9).
  • 65 (. .A. C.) , , , ( ) (D. 50. 4. 11. 4). . . X. 53 (52). 4.
  • 66, , , (ad praesidis religionem pertinet), (), , ( ) (D. 50. 5. 2. 8). , , .
  • 67Magistris, qui civilium munerum vacationem habent, item grammaticis et oratoribus et medicis et philosophis, ne hospitem reciperent, a principibus fuisse immunitatem indultam et divus Vespasianus et divus Hadrianus rescripsenint.
  • 68 . (Bowersock G. W. Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire. Oxf., 1969. P. 32).
  • 69Hadot. Op. cit. P. 223, 232 suiv.; . Harris. Op. cit. P. 235 f.
  • 70, , , (ILS 6891 = FIRA I. 105. . 57).
  • 71, , , , , ( ) , .   litterator ( γραμματιατής) , , , . , (Kaster. Op. cit. P. 24, 44 ff.; Harris. Op. cit. P. 234 f.; Agusta-Boularol. Op. cit. P. 683; Cribiore. Op. cit. P. 14, 20 f.).
  • 72 . 61: 200 (7. 70), (oratori sive sofistae) 250 ⅻ (7. 71). , , ( 1 4 5, , , numerus clausus),   , .
  • 73  . Kaster. Op. cit. P. 44.
  • 74Marotta. Op. cit. P. 146; Coppola. Op. cit. P. 264, 280.
  • 75 . , (Op. cit. P. 225. Not. 115).
  • 76Macqueron. Op. cit. P. 173; Crook. Op. cit. P. 204; Visky. Geistige Arbeit S. 80; . El Digesto de Justiniano P. 839.
  • 77Klami. Op. cit. P. 581. comites   ,   (A Latin Dictionary. S. v. Comes. P. 374).
  • 78 comites , (D. 47. 10. 15. 16; Comitem accipere debemus eum, qui comitetur et sequatur et (ut ait Labeo) sive liberum sive servum sive masculum sive feminam inter comites utique et paedagogi erunt. . D. 47. 11. 1. 2. . Verg. Aen. 5. 546; Liv. 5. 27. 1; Suet. Claud. 35. 2; Stat. Silv. 5. 2. 60. Bernard. Op. cit. P. 29. Not. 92).
  • 79Schuppe E. Paidogogos // RE. Bd XVIII. 2. 1943. Sp. 2379 ff.; Bonner. Op. cit. P. 39 ff.; Visky. Geistige Arbeit S. 32; Harris. Op. cit. P. 239; Cribiore. Op. cit. P. 16.
  • 80 50 (7. 65), 50 ⅻ (7. 66).
  • 81 . , , , honorarium . , honorarium (, ) , merces (Coppola. Op. cit. P. 197. Not. 111, 206 ss., 247 ss., 283 ss.).
  • 82 (honestissimus labor  Inst. or. 12. 7. 10),   (pulcherrimam alioquin et bonarum artium principem  Ann. 11. 6. 2). . Bernard. Op. cit. P. 99. Not. 83.
  • 83 (D. 50. 13. 1. 10). (, , , ) . orator (. . . S. v. Orator. . 386; Oxford Latin Dictionary S. v. Orator. P. 1263).
  • 84 . 72: (oratori sive sofistae) 250 (7. 71), (advocate sive iuris perito) 250 (7. 72), 1000 (7. 73), - (architecte magistro) 100 (7. 74). , .
  • 85Tac. Ann. 11, 7. - (Tac. Ann. 13. 5; 13. 42), .
  • 86Bernard. Op. cit. P. 99.
  • 87, , (Ep. 5. 13 (14), 8). , (Inst or. 12. 7. 812). , honorati, (C. II., 6. 6. 45).  . Crook J. A. Legal Advocacy in the Roman World. L., 1995. P. 44. 122 f.
  • 88,   - . , , ,   . ( , ) ,   .
  • 89 - , . , , - (Visky, Geistige Arbeit S. 71), 23 (Bernard. Op. cit. P. 8486; Coppola. Op. cit. P. 276278).
  • 90De Robertis. Op. cit. P. 194; Michel. Op. cit. P. 199, 208 suiv.; Wacke. Op. cit. S. 416 f.
  • 91Bernad. Op. cit. P. 85 suiv.
  • 92, , - . 139140 . . . (Taubenschlag R. The Law of Greco-Roman Egypt in the Light of the Papyri, 322 BC  640 AD. 2nd ed. Warszawa, 1955. P. 377. Not. 7). , (Coppola. Op. cit. P. 278).
  • 93Coppola. Op. cit. P. 276 ss.
  • 94 , (Inst. or. 1. 11). . Plut. De educ. liber. 4.  . Dixon S. The Roman Mother. LondonSydney, 1988. P. 110 ff., 120, 131, 134, 145, 233.
  • 95 . (Op. cit. P. 277. Not. 241)   , (Inst or. 1. 1. 45). , . , (, ), (Inst or. 1. 1. 8). - - . . , (in doctrinam), , (ad educendum  D. 24. 1. 28. 1).
  • 96. . 23.
  • 97, , , , , - (Sat. 6. 592594). , ,   . - , , - , (Bradley. Discovering the Roman Family P. 19, 21; idem. Wet-nursing at Rome: Study in Social Relations / The Family in Ancient Rome. New Perspectives // Ed. by B. Rawson. London-Sydney, 1986. P. 201, 203 ff.).
  • 98Sua quemque mater uberibus alit nec ancillis ac nutricibus delegantur.
  • 99 , - (Graecula ancilia  Dial. 29. 1) , . (empta nutrix  Dial. 28. 4).
  • 100Tac. Dial. 2829; Plut. De educ. liber. 3 CD; Plut. Cat. Mai. 20. 5; Aul. Gell. 12. 1; Soran. Gyn. 2. 18; 4. 9; . Plin. NH. XXVIII. 123.
  • 101Graxiae Alexandriae insignis exempli ac pudicitiae, quae etiam filios suos propriis uberibus educavit (CIL, 6. 19128).
  • 102 , , , (tota interga mater), ,   (Aul. Gell. 12. 1. 56).
  • 103 , , (generosam indolem) , , , (De re rust 7. 12. 12).
  • 104 , , semen . : (: )  cuius in corpore homo coalitus sit (12. 1. 11).
  • 105 (. . , ), : , , , , , , , , , , - , () (D. 41. 1. 26. 1).
  • 106   . , , , (Cat. Mai. 20. 5).  . Bonner. Op. cit. P. 36 f.
  • 107 (12. 1). . Plut. De educ. lib. 3 D. (. Dixon. Op. cit. P. 119).
  • 108, (Tusc. 3. 1. 2). , , , (Inst. or. 6 pr. 8). , , , ,   . -, , , (Ep. 99. 14). , , , , , (De ira 2. 21. 9; . . . ).
  • 109Kampen. Op. cit. P. 110; Dixon. Op. cit. P. 145; Bradley. Discovering the Roman Family P. 20 ff., 25, 27.
  • 110, , , ,   .
  • 111Secundus est a matre nutricis dolor.
  • 112C. Iul. Aug. l. Helen sibi et Eroti patri et Zmyrnae matri et Tryphenae nutrici et Phoebe et Eupatoridi et Secundo et Acquali et Ilariae  Caesaris vernis  et libertis et libertabus et posterisque eorum. , , . , , , , , . . , , , , (CIL 6. 35037). . CIL 6. 7290; 6. 12133; 6. 20938.
  • 113 , , : Bradley. Wet-nursing P. 204206; Dixon. Op. cit. P. 145. Not. 7. : Nielsen H. S. Interpreting Epithets in Roman Epitaphs // The Roman Family in Italy. Status, Sentiment, Space / Ed. B. Rawson, P. Weaver. CanberraOxford. 1997. P. 170 ff.
  • 114Nielsen. Op. cit. P. 173.
  • 115. -, - (nutritores) . , , , , , , (ibid.) , , (fosterer, foster brother/sister), 2/3 -.
  • 116, officium pietatis, D. 11. 7: . . Dixon. Op. cit. P. 220; Nielsen. Op. cit. P. 195 f.
  • 117   , , , .
  • 118Piissima  CIL 6. 16329; pientissima  CIL 6. 15655; AE 1972. 434; sanctissima  CIL 14. 486; sancta, pia, amantissima  CIL 6. 7290.
  • 119Nielsen. Op. cit. P. 194 ff.
  • 120Günther R. Frauenarbeit  Frauenbindung. Untersuchungen zu unfreien und freigelassenen Frauen in den stadtrömischen Inschriften. München, 1987. S. 86.
  • 121- , , 10%,   50% (Joshel S. R. Work, Identity and Legal Status at Rome. A Study of the Occupational Inscriptions. Norman-London, 1992. P. 98. Not. 15, 16).
  • 122  -, (capsa) . (Suet. Nero. 36. 2). , , (Bonner. Op. cit. P. 37).
  • 123 , , , . . , , - (sic nutritus admissarius equas diligere condiscit). , , , (De re rust. 6. 37. 8). . Sen. De ira 2. 21. 9; Plut. Cat Mai. 20. 5.
  • 124Saller R. P. Patriarchy, Property and Death in the Roman Family / Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time. 25. Cambr., 1994. P. 107 ff.
  • 125 . , , pietas, , (Op. cit. P. 111).
  • 126Quin immo et mulieres admittuntur, sed hae solae, quae pietate necessitudinis ductae ad hoc procedunt, ut puta mater. Nutrix quoque et avia possunt. Potest et soror, nam in sorore et rescriptum exstat divi Severi
  • 127Veyne. Op. cit. P. 18; Wiedermann T. Adults and Children in the Roman Empire, L., 1989. P. 10 f.; Bradley. Discovering the Roman Family P. 55, 64. . Nielsen H. S. Quasi-Kin, Quasi-Adoption and the Roman Family // Adoption et fosterage / Ed. M. Corbier. P., 1999. P. 258 f.
  • 128Pietas fundamentum est omnium virtutum.
  • 129 , , , (Marrou. Op. cit. P. 344; Harris. Op. cit. P. 233; Wiedermann. Op. cit. P. 95 f., 143, 156 ff.; Kaster. Op. cit. P. 66 ff.; Cribiore. Op. cit. P. 15 f.).
  • 130Nec officium in docendo spectet sed adfectum.
  • 131CIL 6. 9444; 6. 9449; 6. 9827; 6. 10008, 10009, 10011a; 8. 5528 8. 5529; IG 14. 2454; MAMA 7. 358; AE 1941. 141. Raubitschek A. E. Greek Inscriptions // Hesperia. 1966. 35. P. 248 f. , ( )  CIL 6. 10010; 6. 10011; 6. 10013; 6. 10014; 6. 10015; 6. 10016; 6. 10017; 6. 10018. , , (CIL 6. 10013). (CIL 6. 1001a) (CIL 6. 10016) piissimi.
  • 132 , . παιδαγωγός (Ant Iud. 20. 8. 9), rectores imperatoriae iuventae (Ann. 13. 2).
  • 133Berger A. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Roman Law. Philadelphia, 1953. S. v. Extraneus (exter, exterus, extrarius). P. 466.
  • 134. Sen. Die ira 2. 21. 9.
  • 135 , - extra ordinem.
  • 136 , , (. 125), , pietas, .
  • 1303308995 1303322046 1263488756 1315290539 1315307886 1315483833

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