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AAWM  Abhandlungen der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz.

CAH  The Cambridge Ancient History.

CIL  Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum.

CQ  Classical Quarterly.

IGR  Inscriptiones Graecae ad res Romanas pertinentes.

ILS  Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae.

JRS  The Journal of Roman Studies.

RGDA  Res gestae divi Augusti.

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[11] Brunt P. A. Roman Imperial Themes. Oxford, 1990.

[12] Burian J. Latrones. Ein Begriff in römischen literarischen und juristischen Quellen // Eirene. Studia Graeca et Latina. 21. 1984. S. 1723.

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[14] Eckstein A. M. Conceptualizing Roman Imperial Expansion under the Republic // A Companion to the Roman Republic / Eds. N. Rosenstein and R. Morstein-Marx. Oxford, 2006. P. 565589.

[15] Eckstein A. M. Mediterranean Anarchy, Interstate War, and the Rise of Rome. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2006.

[16] Edwell P. Definitions of Roman Imperialism // A Companion to Roman Imperialism (History of Warfare. Vol. 81) / Ed. D. Hoyos. Leiden  Boston, 2013. P. 3952.

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[18] Giuffre V. Latrones desertoresque // Labeo. Rassegna di diritto romano. 27. 1981. P. 214218.

[19] Gruen E. S. The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome. Vol. 1. Berkeley, 1984.

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[22] Kroll W. Die Kultur der ciceronischen Zeit. Leipzig, 1933.

[23] Lintott A. Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration. L.; N. Y., 1993.

[24] Madsen J. M. The Provincialisation of Rome // A Companion to Roman Imperialism (History of Warfare. Vol. 81) / Ed. D. Hoyos. Leiden  Boston, 2013. P. 305318.

[25] Millar F. Rome, the Greek World, and the East / Eds. H. M. Cotton and G. M. Rogers. Vol. 2. Government, Society, and Culture in the Roman Empire. L., 2004.

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[27] Pitts L.-F. Relations between Rome and the German Kings on the Middle Danube in the First to Fourth Centuries A. D. // JRS. 79. 1989. P. 4558.

[28] Potter D. The Limits of Rower // A Companion to Roman Imperialism (History of Warfare. Vol. 81) / Ed. D. Hoyos. Leiden  Boston, 2013. P. 319332.

[29] Richardson J. S. Imperium Romanum: Empire and the Language of Power // JRS. 81. 1991. P. 19.

[30] Stone M. The Genesis of Roman Imperialism // A Companion to Roman Imperialism (History of Warfare. Vol. 81) / Ed. D. Hoyos. Leiden  Boston, 2013. P. 2338.

[31] Vogt J. Ciceros Glaube an Rom. Darmstadt, 1963.

[32] Whittaker C. R. Frontiers // CAH. 2nd ed. Vol. XI. The High Empire, AD 70192 / Ed. A. K. Bowman. Cambridge, 2008. P. 293319.

[33] Woolf G. Roman peace // War and Society in the Roman World / Leicester-Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society. Vol. 5 / Eds. J. Rich and G. Shipley. L., 1993. P. 171194.

.88

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[8] Bellen H. Metus Gallicus  Metus Punicus. Zum Furchtmotiv in der römischen Republic / AAWM. 3. 1985.

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[13] Cornell T. The end of Roman imperial expansion // War and Society in the Roman World / Leicester-Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society. Vol. 5 / Eds. J. Rich and G. Shipley. L., 1993. P. 139170.

[14] Eckstein A. M. Conceptualizing Roman Imperial Expansion under the Republic // A Companion to the Roman Republic / Eds. N. Rosenstein and R. Morstein-Marx. Oxford, 2006. P. 565589.

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[16] Edwell P. Definitions of Roman Imperialism // A Companion to Roman Imperialism (History of Warfare. Vol. 81) / Ed. D. Hoyos. Leiden  Boston, 2013. P. 3952.

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[19] Gruen E. S. The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome. Vol. 1. Berkeley, 1984.

[20] Grünewald Th. Bandits in the Roman Empire: Myth and Reality. L.; N. Y., 2004.

[21] Harris W. V. War and Imperialism in Republican Rome, 32770 BC. Oxford, 1979.

[22] Kroll W. Die Kultur der ciceronischen Zeit. Leipzig, 1933.

.89 [23] Lintott A. Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration. L.; N. Y., 1993.

[24] Madsen J. M. The Provincialisation of Rome // A Companion to Roman Imperialism (History of Warfare. Vol. 81) / Ed. D. Hoyos. Leiden  Boston, 2013. P. 305318.

[25] Millar F. Rome, the Greek World, and the East / Eds. H. M. Cotton and G. M. Rogers. Vol. 2. Government, Society, and Culture in the Roman Empire. L., 2004.

[26] Paterson J. Transalpinae gentes: Cicero, De re publica 3, 16 // CQ. 1978. 28. P. 452458.

[27] Pitts L.-F. Relations between Rome and the German Kings on the Middle Danube in the First to Fourth Centuries A. D. // JRS. 79. 1989. P. 4558.

[28] Potter D. The Limits of Rower // A Companion to Roman Imperialism (History of Warfare. Vol. 81) / Ed. D. Hoyos. Leiden  Boston, 2013. P. 319332.

[29] Richardson J. S. Imperium Romanum: Empire and the Language of Power // JRS. 81. 1991. P. 19.

[30] Stone M. The Genesis of Roman Imperialism // A Companion to Roman Imperialism (History of Warfare. Vol. 81) / Ed. D. Hoyos. Leiden  Boston, 2013. P. 2338.

[31] Vogt J. Ciceros Glaube an Rom. Darmstadt, 1963.

[32] Whittaker C. R. Frontiers // CAH. 2nd ed. Vol. XI. The High Empire, AD 70192 / Ed. A. K. Bowman. Cambridge, 2008. P. 293319.

[33] Woolf G. Roman peace // War and Society in the Roman World / Leicester-Nottingham Studies in Ancient Society. Vol. 5 / Eds. J. Rich and G. Shipley. L., 1993. P. 171194.

Research article

Pax Romana and the Roman imperialism in the 1st century A. D.
Vladimir O. Nikishin

Lomonosov Moscow State University
Lomonosovsky Av, 27-4, Moscow, Russia, 119991

This article is devoted to such a historical phenomenon as the Roman imperialism in the epoch of Augustus and his coming successors. Despite the fact that the founder of the Principate had declared the coming of pax Augusta, he spent several wars of conquest (for instance, in Spain and Germany). But Tiberius had already refused of aggressive imperialism, then the Empire moved to defense at all frontiers. The emperors of the 1st century A. D. only from time to time took off ensive actions (for example, in Armenia or Britain). Probably, there were two reasons for the Romans rejection of expansion policy. First of all, by that moment they had already conquered practically all the Mediterranean, and the expanding of the boundaries of the Empire hadnt sense any more. Secondly, the creation of professional army led to the noticeable decline of the militarization level of the Roman society, which from that on was keenly interested in the keeping of peace and stability all over the pax Romana.


Keywords: the Roman imperialism, defensive imperialism, aggressive imperialism, bellum iustum, Quintilius Varus, Augustus, Claudius, Teutoburger Forest, vassal kingdoms, pax Augusta

.90  / Information about the author


, , . . , . E-mail: cicero74@mail.ru


Nikishin Vladimir Olegovich, Candidate of Historical Sciences, senior teacher of the department of the ancient history in the history faculty of M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow. E-mail: cicero74@mail.ru


 / For citation


. . Pax Romana I . . . // . : . 2019. T. 11.  1. . 7690.
http://dx.doi.org/10.22363/2312-8127-2019-11-1-76-90


Nikishin V. O. Pax Romana and the Roman imperialism in the 1st century A. D. // RUDN Journal of World History. 2019. Vol. 11.  1. Pp. 7690.
http://dx.doi.org/10.22363/2312-8127-2019-11-1-76-90


 / Article received: 14.12.2018


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