| | |

*

.147 I.


. , patria potestas, . .  ΙΙ :


Item in potestate nostra sunt liberi nostri quos iustis nuptiis procreavimus. Quod ius proprium civium Romanorum est; fere enim nulli alii sunt homines, qui talem in filios suos habent potestatem, qualem nos habemus. Idque divus Hadrianus edicto, quod proposuit de his, qui sibi liberisque suis ab eo civitatem Romanam petebant, significavit. Nec me praeterit Galatarum gentem credere in potestate parentum liberos esse (Inst. I. 55).

, ; ( ) , , , . , , : , , (. . . . ).

: patria potestas , 212 ..? , III ? ? , . , III 1. , . , patria potestas - 2. . , 3. , , .

.148 patria potestas , . , , patria potestas , / , 4. .


II. Patria potestas, peculium


patria potestas : pater , . . . , : pater, , 5. , , potestas. , emancipatio, , (sui iuris), (. V).

, , potestas. . , in potestate, : , , paterfamilias, . . peculium, , , (libera administratio peculii)6. peculium . . , . 7.

patria potestas , . , , , . , , . .149 , . , , , in potestate 8. . patria potestas, .

, , . , , , , , , , . , , in potestate . , , pater , peculium. , 9.

, . , , , , , , potestas. . , , , , , . , : 10. , patria potestas , 11.

, , . , (peculium castrense) - patria potestas. , , , -filiusfamilias , inter vivos12. , , sui iuris (CJ 4.28.7.1).

: , , patria potestas. , . III militia . , , , 13. , - peculium castrense.

V , , , , .150 , peculium, I Adiutrix14.

(palatini), , peculium castrense15. V 16. - , , , . , peculium castrense (omnibus omnino, qui salaria vel stipendia percipiunt publica) : peculium quasi castrense17. V ; , . (CTh 1.34.2; 2.10.6; Nov. Val. 2.2.4) interpretationes V Lex Romana Visigothorum 506 , 18.

peculium (quasi) castrense peculium. , 422 :


Filiifamilias [advocati], quidquid ex huiuscemodi professione vel ipsius occasione quaesierunt vel conquisierint, id post patris obitum praecipuum veluti peculium castrense proprio dominio valeant vindicare sub tali forma, quam militantibus ex iure procinctus cinguli praerogativa detulit (CTh 2.10.6 = CJ 2.7.4).

, [] , , [1]19.

. , VI 20. , (dominium) ? peculium castrense, dominium, (possessio) . , 21. , peculium castrense peculium. , .151 peculium. , peculium , ( ): (peculium) , (peculium castrense) . 22.

୸ : . , . 178 .. . , , in potestate, , , . , . , , . Bona materna, -, , praelegatum . fideicommissa, ; , , 23.

. - , . , dominium, ius fruendi . , -, , , . . , 24. , patria potestas. , . .

. , . - , , (Nov. 74. praef. 2). , . , bona materna peculium25. , , , . , - ? , . , . , , 26.

.152 , . , . , , . in patria potestate, bona materna . peculium (quasi) castrense ( ). , , . ; 468 27. 542 bona materna (Nov. 117.1). , in potestate, , , . , . . , , , peculium quasi castrense, .

, . , , , : 379 , 28, 426 , 29, , , , , . 30.

: patria potestas , . , , potestas. , , , , , . , patria potestas . peculium (quasi) castrense -, , peculium , , , . , , , patria potestas. - . , , . ; patria potestas . , bona materna : . , , , fideicommissa, , .

, , , . , peculium . , , . . , , .153 , , - . , - . , -, V , 31.


III.


, paterfamilias , 32. , . patria potestas (ius vitae ac necis). , -, , 33. . . . , 34. , , 35. , paterfamilias , 36. , , . , , .

, 37. , , , patria potestas. , . , (Serm. 45.2, CCL 41.517). , (, peculium) 38. , .154 , . .

, , . 渭 , . , , , (querela inofficiosi testamenti)39. , , . , (CJ 3.28.1819). - , . , , , 40. , , (Nov. 115.3). , ḭ, , . , patria potestas , . , , . V , , , , , 41.

, . , , , . , . , . , , , 42. , , , , . . 43.

, , VI 44. . , . . . . , . , : 45. . , , .155 46. , . , -, ( ). , , , .


IV. patria potestas:


: patria potestas III . 212 .. : patria potestas (Inst. 1.55). , , , , , , 47. , , . Lex Irnitana, I , , , , , , patria potestas. , . , , , . , 48.

, , . , , . 212 . 49. , (exousia) , 50. . , , , , patria potestas , 51. , , , , 52.

III , Constitutio Antoniniana, : -, , -, . . , . , , , , . .156 , , - , , . , , , . ( ) 53.

, - , , . , , , . , , : , . , , , . , patria potestas . , , - potestas emancipatio ( , , , ); , , , 54. , III ( ) patria potestas , , .

. , III , . , , : , , , , -, . , , , , , , , ḭ. , . , , .

, patria potestas , , III . , ḭ (hypokheirios/a) 55, , (hypo te kheiri kata tous Romaion nomous)56. , potestas57. 200 . .., (BGU VII. 1578). , , - , ; , , , . , , in potestate ([akh]thomene to hypokheirian moi einai). ୸ . 260- , , , . , .157 , 58. , , (mancipatio)59, (apoluthentes tes patrikes exousias)60.

, . , : , , , 61. , (dia tou patros). , . , , , - , , 62. , , ḭ 63.

, 64. in potestate , , . , (praef(ecto) Aegypti [a M.] Aurelio Chaeremone q(ui) e(t) Didymo impub(ere) t(utore) a(uctore) patre [suo] M. Aurelio Chaeremone q(ui) e(t) Zoilo hieronica [An]tinoense)65. , , , 66. : kyrios. , epitropos ( kourator). , . , kyrios: , paterfamilias67. , , , , .

, , 291 .. , . (, , ) , (rneta symbebaiotou tou patros), , . .158 . , . , , . , , -, 68.

, . , . , , peculium, , . , , , , filiusfamilias peculium (, ). , (Aprilem servum meum). in potestate, 69. , -filiifamilias 70. , ḭ , III , . , , - in potestate, , 71. (ep onomatos tou hypokheiriou hyiou) 260 .. (Si domum. . . pater tuus, cum in potestate eius ageres, nomine tuo donandi animo comparavit. . .)[4] 72.

, patria potestas , , , . , . , , , , .

:

1. , . hypokheirios , . .

2. Patria potestas , , , .

3. , , , , - , .

.159 . , 73. , . : , , , , . , hypokheirioi, (P.Diog. 18; P.Gen. 44; SB I.5692). , ( ), P.Panop. 28 = SB XII.11221), (P.Oxy. XLI.2951)74.

, , . , : , 212 . : , , 75. potestas, , . , . , , , . , , , , , . , (. V).

, , , , : . patria potestas , . per capita, potestas. , , familia , . , ( , , , )76. : 77.


V. patria potestas:


, patria potestas 212 . , , (., , II bona materna peculium castrense). .160 patria potestas - 78. , , , , 79. , , , , (Nov. 74. praef. 2). - IV V 80. , ୸ , : patria potestas . , , in potestate , , , .

, , patria potestas, III . hypokheirios hypo te kheiri 329 , hypexousios (. ). IV ; patria potestas -, . , , , . , , , , ( arrogatio) . ୸ , , , 81. , : peculium.

, 430 , , (JSB V.7996 = PSI XII.1239). , , . (hypexousioi) , , (kyrios). , . : , ( ), ( ) . , VI (P.Michael. 40.6163).

, IV , V , , . , 82. VI hypexousios (). : ୸ ( ) , , hypexousios, . 渭 , , . , ; , , 83. , .161 patria potestas , . , , .

, patria potestas . , - . : , ?84 , in potestate . , : -, , -, . .

୸ . patria potestas , . - , 85. , , . 86. , , , 87. III ; - , , , 88.

, , , 츭 , - : , , . . , , . :


Cum aetates legitimae liberorum ad emancipationem parentes invitaverint et patresfamilias videre liberos suos voluerint. . . (CTh 8.18.2).

[5].

393 , , in potestate. , , . , , , 89. , , . V , in potestate90. , (aliquando) , ; . , , , . , , .162 . , , , 91.

452 . , . , . , , , paterfamilias bona materna. , , emancipatio, . (, in familia constitutus) , : , , 92.

, , V . , , , , , . , -, . , , - patricius, patria potestas. , filiusfamilias, (quemadmodum in consulibus haec res usitata est)93. , , . . , , , , 94. , , , .

, patria potestas , : , . patria potestas , V VI . Lex Romana Visigothorum95. , Lex Romana Burgundionum patria potestas emancipatio, filiusfamilias . patria potestas , , . , ୸ , 96.

VI , -, patria potestas, :


Illae vero qui adhuc vivis parentibus substantiam suam in potestate habere non possunt, aut adhuc minoris aetatis sunt, chartas tunc facere compellantur quando res parentum in potestate habere potuerint, aut ad legitimum aetatem pervenerint (Reg. virg. 6, SC 345.184).

.163 , , 97 , , [7].

. - , (resparentum). , . , . , (substantiam suam) : .

. - . , Lex Burgundionum patria potestas. , . , , . , . , , , . peculium quasi castrense. . , . , . , . , , . Lex Burgundionum, Lex Visigothorum , . , , 98.

patria potestas? , . 594 (Ep. 4.36) , res maternae . , . , , VII ,  peculium:


Peculium proprie minorum est personarum sive servorum. Nam peculium est quod pater vel dominus filium suum vel servum pro suo tractare patitur (Orig. 5.25.5).

, . , [8].

peculium, , . , in potestate. , formula . :


Prisca consuetudo et legum decreta sanxerunt, ut patres filios in potestate habentes tempore, quo perfectos in eos praespexerint annos, postulata a patribus absolutione, percipiant, quod tamen patres ipsi, si voluerint, concedant. . . (Form. Vis. 34).

.164 , , , ; , , [9].

, , - . , , . VII , , , , , - , . . formula (potestas patris), 99. , patria potestas , VII VIII . , 110.


VI.


, patria potestas , . Ÿ , , in potestate . , . , , patria potestas . peculium (quasi) castrense , . , patria potestas , ୸ . , . . , IV , , , . Patria potestas . , , , , . , , , . patria potestas , . .

patria potestas . , , . , III , . , , , , , . , , , - . , ( ), .165 . , , . , , , . , - -, , . . , , patria potestas , .


  • * , Women and Law in Late Antiquity (1996) WLL. II (, ) 1997 . , , , , , . .
  • 1. , , J. F. Gardner, Being a Roman Citizen (1993), 3284; R. P. Saller, Patria potestas and the stereotype of the Roman family, Continuity and Change 1 (1986), 722; idem, Patriarchy, Property and Death in the Roman Family (1994), 71153.
  • 2P. Voci, Storia della patria potestas da Costantino a Giustiniano, SDHI 51 (1985), 172; . idem, Storia della patria potestas da Augusto a Diocleziano, Iura 31 (1980), 37100; E. Sachers, Potestas patria, RE XXII (1953), 10461175; D. Dalla, Aspetti della patria potesta e dei rapporti tra genitori e figli nellepoca postclassica, Atti dellAccademia Romanistica Costantiniana: VII Convegno intemazionale (1988), 89109. : L. Mitteis, Reichsrecht und Volksrecht in den östlichen Provinzen des römischen Kaiserreichs (1891, repr. 1935, 1963), 209212.
  • 3R. Taubenschlag, Die Patria potestas im Recht der Papyri, ZRG 37 (1916), 177230, . 207230; idem, The Law of Greco-Roman Egypt in the Light of the Papyri (2nd edn, 1955), 130149; , , Sachers, op. cit. (. 2), 10671068, 11361137, .
  • 4 : D. Daube, Roman Law: Linguistic, Social and Philosophical Aspects (1969), 7591. : A. Watson, Society and Legal Change (1977), 2330. : Y. Thomas, The division of the sexes in Roman law, : P. S. Pantel (ed.), A History of Women in the West, I. From Ancient Goddesses to Christian Saints (1992), 83137, 90111.
  • 5. Saller, op. cit. (. 1, 1986), idem, Mens age at marriage and its consequences in the Roman family, CPh 82 (1987), 2134. , , : In Coloss. 1.3, PG 62.303. . T. G. Parkin, Demography and Roman Society (1992), . 7085; Saller, op. cit. (. 1, 1994), 969; R. S. Bagnall and B. W. Frier, The Demography of Roman Egypt (1994), . 75110.
  • 6 libera administratio . , , administratio , Dig. 39.5.7; . 2.14.28.2; 34.4.31.3; 41.2.14.pr; 42.8.12; 46.2.34.pr; Seneca, Cons. Helv. 14.3 etc. peculium . Y. Thomas, Droit domestique et droit politique à Rome: Remarques sur le pécule et les honores des fils de famille, MEFRA 94 (1982), 527580; A. Kirschenbaum, Sons, Slaves and Freedmen in Roman Commerce (1987); Gardner, op. cit. (. 1), 5562.
  • 7Dig. 4.4.3.4; 34.4.31.3; CJ 5.18.7 (294 .); Geront., Vita Melaniae 12, SC 90.150, Arjava, WLL 43. M. Kaser, Das römische Privatrecht, I: Das altrömische, das vorklassische und klassische Recht (2nd edn, 1971), 344; R. P. Saller, Pietas, obligation and authority in the Roman family, : P. Kneissel und V. Losemann (eds), Alte Geschichte und Wissenschaftsgeschichte: Festschrift für K. Christ (1988), 393410, 396397, 407408; idem, op. cit. (. 1, 1994), 123127.
  • 8. Watson, op. cit. (. 4), 2728; P. Garnsey and R. P. Saller, The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture (1987), 4748.
  • 9Dig. 6.1.65.1; 31.88.pr/89.pr; 33.8.6.4/10/19.2/26; 34.4.31.3; 40.1.7; CJ 3.29.2; 3.36.13/18.pr.
  • 10 ., , P. Garnsey (ed.), Non-Slave Labour in the Greco-Roman World (1980), .
  • 11. CJ 8.46.5; Dig. 25.3.5.7; Aug., Serm. 45.2, CCL 41.517; Saller, op. cit. (. 7, 1988), 406; idem, op. cit. (. 1, 1994), 126127; Daube, op. cit. (. 4), 8182.
  • 12Tit. Ulp. 20.10; Just., Inst. 2.12.pr; CJ 4.28.7.1; 12.36; Dig. 14.6.2; 24.1.32.8; 38.2.22; 39.5.7.6; 49.17. H. Fitting, Das castrense peculium in seiner geschichtlichen Entwickelung und heutigen gemeinrechtlichen Geltung (1871); F. La Rosa, I peculii speciali in diritto romano (1953); Kaser, op. cit. (. 7), 344; B. Lehmann, Das Eigenvermögen der römischen Soldaten unter väterlicher Gewalt, ANRW 11.14 (1982), 183284.
  • 13., , E. Stein, Untersuchungen über das Officium der Prätorianerpräfektur seit Diokletian (1922), 1416; A. Boak, Officium, RE XVII (1936), 20452056; A. H. M. Jones, The Roman civil service (clerical and subclerical grades), : idem, Studies in Roman Government and Law (1960), 153175; idem, The Later Roman Empire 284602 (1964), 563566; . K. L. Noetlichs, Beamtentum und Dienstvergehen: Zur Staatsverwaltung in der Spätantike (1981), 2034.
  • 14CJ 12.36.6 (444? .); . Fitting, op. cit. (. 12), 416431; La Rosa, op. cit. (. 12), 218221 ( , . 208219 , ); Stein, op. cit. (. 13), 910. CJ 6.21.1617, , peculium castrense, , . Dig. 29.1; CJ 6.21; Just., Inst. 2.11.
  • 15CTh 6.36.1 (326 .); . 6.35, . 6.35.3 (352? .); B. Lehmann, Das peculium castrense der palatini, Labeo 23 (1977), 4954. Silentiarii, praepositus sacri cubiculi , , , CJ 12.16.5 (497/499 ., ), , , palatini , , . . W. Ensslin, Palatini, RE XVIII.1 (1942), 25292560, . 25362540.
  • 16: CTh 1.34.2 + 2.10.6 (422 ., ); CJ 2.7.7 (439 ., ), 8 (440 ., ); Nov. Val. 2.2.4 (442 ., ). : CJ 1.3.33 (472 ., ); Nov. 123.19 (546 ., ).
  • 17CJ 3.28.37 (531 .); 6.61.7 (530 .). . M. Kaser, Das römische Privatrecht, II: Die nachklassischen Entwicklungen (2nd edn, 1975), 216; Voci, op. cit. (. 2, 1985), 3339.
  • 18 , , ., , C. Schott, Der Stand der Leges-Forschung, Frühmittelalterliche Studien 13 (1979), 2955; Arjava, WLL 1823, .
  • 19 vindicare . vindicatio -, , . , , ; . E. Levy, West Roman Vulgar Law: The Law of Property (1951), 210219, .
  • 20Basilicorum scholia 8.1.19, 8.1.23.3, Scheltema B I 7274, 76; Voci, op. cit. (. 2, 1985), 34.
  • 21 . La Rosa, op. cit. (. 12), 208216, . , ; . CJ 1.3.49.pr; 3.28.37 (, ).
  • 22, Dig. 6.1.65.1; 37.7.8; Fragm. Vat. 294; CJ 3.36.4 ( ); 6.20.1213 (294 .); 1.3.33 (472 ., ); 12.16.5 (497/499 ., ); 6.20.21 (532 ., ). , , , peculium castrense, Nov. Val. 2.2.4 (442, ., ); CJ 12.16.5.pr (497/499 ., ); Just., Inst. 2.12.pr.
  • 23., , M. Humbert, Le Remariage à Rome (1972), 207263; J. F. Gardner, Another family and an inheritance: Claudius Brasidas and his ex-wifes will, LCM 12 (1987), 5254; E. Champlin, Final Judgments: Duty and Emotion in Roman Wills 200 B.C.A.D. 250 (1991), 125126; Arjava, WLL, 98100; . 58.
  • 24CTh 8.18; Arjava, WLL, 100105, . ( cretio, ḭ ) ., , P. Voci, Il diritto ereditario Romano nelletà di tardo impero: il IV secolo (prima parte), Iura 29 (1978), 17113, 5679; P. Fuenteseca, Maternum patrimonium (Revisión de CTh. 8,18,1 y 8,18,2), Atti dellAccademia Romanistica Costantiniana: IX Convegno internazionale (1993), 331347.
  • 25. ius peculii, Nov. Theod. 14.8 (439 ., ); . Humbert, op. cit. (. 23), 246252, .
  • 26CJ 6.61.6 (529 .); 6.61.8.5a (531 .); CTh 8.18.9 (426 ., ).
  • 27CTh 8.18.3 (334 .); CJ 6.60.4 (468 .); Arjava, WLL, 101103; , , , 172177.
  • 28CTh 8.18.6 (379 ., ) 7 (395 . ); 8.18.5 (349 ., ).
  • 29CTh 8.19.1 (426 ., ); CJ 6.61.2 (428 ., ); Nov. Theod. 14.8 (439 ., ); CJ 6.61.45 (472/473 ., ).
  • 30CJ 6.61.6 (529 .); Just., Inst. 2.9.1. . Lex Rom. Vis. 8.910 (= CTh 8.1819); Lex Rom. Burg. 22.12.
  • 31Tablettes Albertini 11; 15; 18; 21; 29; 30.
  • 32 . P. E. Corbett, The Roman Law of Marriage (1930), 5367, 122125; J. F. Gardner, Women in Roman Law and Society (1986), 1011, 4144; S. Treggiari, Consent to Roman marriage: some aspects of law and reality, EMC/CV 26 (1982), 3444; eadem, Roman Marriage: Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian (1991), 459461, 476482; J. Beaucamp, Le Statut de la femme à Byzance (4e-7e siècle), II, Les pratiques sociales (1992), 145146, 153158, 297300, 305306; Arjava, WLL, 2941, 4446, .
  • 33Dig. 37.12.5; 48.8.2; 48.9.5; , 4.8586 (FIRA II 224); CTh 19.15.1; 11.27.1; 4.8.6.pr, CJ 8.46.10; Lex Vis. 6.5.1819. : Kaser, op. cit. (. 7), 341342; idem, op. cit. (. 17), 204; Voci, op. cit. (. 2, 1980), 6061, 6674, 79; Y. Thomas, Vitae necisque potestas. Le père, la cité, la mort, : Du châtiment dans la cité: Supplices corporels et peine de mort dans le monde antique (Coll. ÉFR 79, 1984), 499548; W. V. Harris, The Roman fathers power of life and death, : R. S. Bagnall and W. V. Harris (eds), Studies in Roman Law in Memory of A. A. Schiller (1986), 8195; Saller, op. cit. (. 7, 1988), 395396; idem, op. cit. (. 1, 1994), 11517; . J. Goody, The Oriental, the Ancient, and the Primitive: Systems of Marriage and the Family in the Pre-Industrial Societies of Eurasia (1990), 405.
  • 34Tert., Adv. Marc. 2.13.5, CCL 1.490; Lact., Inst. 4.3.1417, CSEL 19.280; Lib., Or. 62.245; Ep. 1375; Jerome, Ep. 82.3; John Chrys., Vidua elig. 910, PG 51.329; De inani gloria 30, SC 188.120; Aug., Serm. 9.4; 13.9, CCL 41.114/182; . Saller, op. cit. (. 7, 1988), 405; idem, Corporal punishment, authority, and obedience in the Roman household, : B. Rawson (ed.), Marriage, Divorce, and Children in Ancient Rome (1991), 144165; E. Eyben, Fathers and sons, ibid. 114143; Saller, op. cit. (. 1, 1994), 142153.
  • 35., Dio Chrys., Or. 15.18; Dig. 48.19.16.2; CJ 8.46.3 (227 .); CTh 9.13.1 (365/373 .); .
  • 36, Aug., In evang. Joh. 7.7, CCL 36.70; In psalm. 32.2.1.3, CCL 38.249; . B. D. Shaw, The family in Late Antiquity: the experience of Augustine, Past and Present 115 (1987), 351, 1926, (, ) ; . S. Poque, Le Langage symbolique dans la prédication dAugustin dHippone: Images héroïques (1984), 193224; . P. Garnsey, Sons, slaves and Christians, : B. Rawson and P. Weaver (eds), The Roman Family in Italy: Status, Sentiment, Space (1997).
  • 37. Dig. 1.16.9.3; CJ 8.46.1/3/5; CTh 9.13.1; BGU VII.1578; . Aug., In Joh. 30.8, CCL 36.293.
  • 38. . 7.
  • 39. CJ 3.28; Dig. 5.2; Gardner, op. cit. (. 32), 183190. : Kaser, op. cit. (. 17), 514521.
  • 40Ambr., De Virginibus 1.6264; Nov. Maj. 6.3 (458 ., ); CJ 1.3.54.5 (533/534 .); Nov. 115.3.11; . Lib., Decl. 46 ( ). . Arjava, WLL, 15767, , .
  • 41Sidon., Ep. 4.23; Lib., Or. 62.2425; . Theodoret., Hist. eccl. 3.17, Cass., Hist. 6.44; Ambr., Hex. 5.4.10; 5.18.58; 6.4.22, CSEL 32.1.147/184/218; Aug., Serm. 355.35, PL 39.1570; In psalm. 32.2.3, CCL 38.248; 93.17, CCL 39.1318; In Galat. 39, PL 35.2132. . Champlin, op. cit. (. 23), 1415, 107111.
  • 42. Aug., Serm. 21.8; 45.2, CCL 41.283/517; In psalm. 17.32, CCL 38.99; 102.20, CCL 40.1469; Ambr., Hex. 5.18.58, CSEL 32.1.184f. Shaw, op. cit. (. 36), 2025; Saller, op. cit. (. 1, 1994), 122123.
  • 43Nov. 18.1 (536 .); P. Masp. III.67353 (569). . P. Masp. 1.67097 = FIRA III.15, Beaucamp, op. cit. (. 32), 7981; - L 9; . W. Selb, Zur Bedeutung des syrisch-römischen Rechtsbuchs (1964), 7286.
  • 44Lex Rom. Burg. 45.45; Sent. Pauli 4.5 + int, CTh 2.19.2/4 + int, : Lex Romana Visigothorum ( Epitomes).
  • 45Lex Vis. 4.5.1/3; . K. Zeumer, Geschichte der westgotischen Gesetzgebung IV, Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde 26 (1901), 91149, 138146; P. D. King, Law and Society in the Visigothic Kingdom (1972), 246247.
  • 46Ed. Roth. 168171; Leg. Liutpr. 113; . Ed. Roth. 158160; Leg. Liutpr. 5; 65; 102. . Lex Burg. 1; 24-25; 51; 75. . Arjava, WLL, 72, 9798.
  • 47. Dig. 1.6.3; Just., Inst. 1.9; Dion. Hal. 2.26. , , , potestas, Philostr., Soph. 1.21.7 (= 521).
  • 48L. Irnit. 2122; 86; . Gaius, Inst. 1.9395; J. González, The Lex Irnitana: a new copy of the Flavian municipal law, JRS 76 (1986), 147243, 148149, 154, 176177, 203204, 231; Gardner, op. cit. (. 1), 188190.
  • 49P. Oxy. II.237; P. Mil. Vogl. IV.229; . N. Lewis, On paternal authority in Roman Egypt, RIDA 17 (1970), 251258.
  • 50. . P.Oxy. II.237, VI. 14 VII.412; BGU VII.1578 -, , .
  • 51. Dig. 5.1.4: Lis nulla nobis esse potest cum eo quem in potestate habemus, nisi ex castrensi peculio[2].
  • 52. Taubenschlag, op. cit. (. 3, 1916), 177207; idem, op. cit. (. 3, 1955), . 130131, 148.
  • 53., , T. Honoré, Emperors and Lawyers (2nd edn, 1994); L. Huchthausen, Herkunft und ökonomische Stellung weiblicher Adressaten von Reskripten des Codex Iustinianus (2. und 3. Jh. u.Z.), Klio 56 (1974), 199228; eadem, Zu kaiserlichen Reskripten an weibliche Adressaten aus der Zeit Diocletians (284305 u.Z.), Klio 58 (1976), 5585.
  • 54 ., , CJ 2.2.3; 3.31.6; 4.19.16; 4.29.8; 5.16.16; 5.71.7; 6.9.4; 6.14.1; 6.20.6/9/11/15; 6.30.1; 6.46.5; 6.57.2; 6.59.1; 8.46.18; 8.48.14; 8.53.2/17; 8.54.5; 10.50.2; etc. potesta* emancipat* .
  • 55BGU VII. 1578 ( 200 .); P.Diog. 18 = P.Harr. 1.68 = FIRA III.28 (225 .); P.Gen. I.44 (260 .); P.Oxy. XIV.1642 (289 .); LIV.3758.156180 (325 .); P.Panop. 28 = SB XII.11221 (329 .); SB I.5692 (III .) P.Oxy. XIV.1703 ( 260 .). . P.Lond. III.977.14 (330 .), ep exousias moi.
  • 56P.Oxy. X.1268 (III .); XLI.2951 (267 .); IX.1208 (291 .); SB X.10728 (318 .).
  • 57 ( ) , . Liddell and Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, s.v., .
  • 58CPR VI.78 ( , ). ., , CJ 3.28.25 (301 .); 6.25.3 (216 .); 6.42.15 (256 .); 8.54.5 (294 .); Arjava, WLL, 99 nn. 7273; . 23.
  • 59CPL 206 = FIRA III.14 (III .); . Gaius, Inst. I.132134. II mancipatio , . 212 , , . , . CJ 4.21.11; 8.48; Sent. Pauli 2.25.24; Gaius, Epit. 1.6.35; - L 3. , mancipatio , - ; , CJ 8.48.6; Just., Inst. 1.12.6; Selb, op. cit. (. 43), 169; Kaser, op. cit. (. 17), 212.
  • 60CPR VI.1230 (300/301 .); . CPR VI p. 60.
  • 61P.Grenf. I.49 (220/201 .); P.Oxy. VII.1040 (225 .); P.Gen. I.9 (251 .); PSI VIII.873 (299 .).
  • 62P.Oxy. LI.3638 (220 .); XIV.1697 (242 .); IX.1208 (291 .); P.Bub. 1.4 (221 .); P.Lond. III.954 = MChr 351 (260 .); P.Giss. 34 (265/266 ., ); P.Coll.Youtie II.7172 (281 .); . P.Oxy. XXXIV.2723 (III .).
  • 63P.Oxy. IX.1208 (291 .); X.1268 (III .); XLI.2951 (267 .); XIV.1703 ( 260 .); SB I.5692 (III .).
  • 64BGU II.667 (221/222 .); PSI XV.1546 (222 .); X.1126 (III .); SB VI.9069 (III .); CPR 1.218. . Arjava, WLL, 112123.
  • 65SB I.1010 = FIRA III.61 (249 .). , SB VI.9298. P.Oxy. VIII.1114 = FIRA III.63 (237 .).
  • 66 , , , .
  • 67PSI X.1126 (III .); CPR I.218 (, ); SB V.7996 = PSI XII.1239 (430 .), . 212 epitropos , BGU II.667 (221/222 .). kyrios epitropos , P.Lond. III.903 (103/117 .).
  • 68P.Oxy. IX. 1208; . E. Volterra, Il senatoconsulto Orfiziano e la sua applicazione in documenti egiziani del III secolo d. C., : Atti dellXI congresso intern. di papirologia (1966), 551585, 576585.
  • 69CIL X.7457 = ILS 8377 = FIRA III.56 (175 .). . -, PSI V.447 (167 .).
  • 70. : H. Chantraine, Freigelassene und Sklaven im Dienst der römischen Kaiser, Studien zu ihrer Nomenklatur (1967), 3541; , CIL VI pp. 899906. Onesimus Germanici Caesaris libertus Marci Aurelii Caesaris libertus Dig. 37.14.13: Filius familias servum peculiarem manumittere non potest. Iussu tamen patris manumittere potest: qui manumissus libertus fit patris[3].
  • 71CJ 3.36.4; 6.20.13; Fragm. Vat. 274; 277; 281; 294296; etc.
  • 72Epit. Cod. Greg. Vis. 3.8.2 (FIRA II.661); . P.Gen. I.44 (260 .); SB X.10728 (318 .); P.Oxy. XII. 1470 (336 .). , , , P.Oxy. IX.1208: XXXIV.2723; LI.3638; P.Lond. III.977. J. Rowlandson, Landowners and Tenants in Roman Egypt: The Social Relations of Agriculture in the Oxyrhynchite Nome (1996), 194, , , , .
  • 73 , P.Mon. I.1.1113 (574 .), , . P.Lips. 1.28 (381 .), V, , , . . Taubenschlag, op. cit. (. 3, 1916), 207214, 223230; , op. cit. (. 3, 1955), 130149, - .
  • 74 tutela impuberis ( ) ( ). III (aetas legitima). , , curator minoris, , tutor. ., , Kaser, op. cit. (. 7), 352372; idem, op. cit. (. 17), 222237. III , . D. Hagedorn, Noch einmal zum Volljährigkeitsalter in Ägypten nach der Constitutio Antoniniana, ZPE 113 (1996), 224226; kouratores , .
  • 75CJ 2.20.5 (293 .); 5.62.19 (294 .); 5.71.7 (283 .); 10.50.2 (); CTh 8.12.2 (316 .).
  • 76Dig. 50.1.2; 50.2.6.4; 50.2.7.3; 50.4.3.1617; CJ 4.13.23; 7.71.3; 10.32.1/5; 10.41.1/3; 10.50.2; 10.52.4; 10.62.14.
  • 77CPR I.20 (250 .); P.Oxy. XIV.1642 (289 .); . P.Oxy. XII. 1418 (247 .).
  • 78 L 23, 18, 40, 42, 44. , , V ; FIRA II.751798 , . . Selb, op. cit. (. 43); R. Yaron, Syro-Romana, Iura 17 (1966), 114164; Kaser, op. cit. (. 17), 4950.
  • 79 patria potestas Corpus Iuris Civilis: . Inst. 1.9 1.12.
  • 80Lact., Inst. 4.3.15, CSEL 19.280; Greg. Naz., Or. 37.6; Basil., Ep. 276; Symm., Ep. 9.150; John Chrys., Qual. duc. ux. 2, PG 51.226; Conc. Hipp. (393 .) 1, CCL 149.20; Eunap., Soph. 495 (heautou kyrios = sui iuris); Aug., Ep. 262.11, CSEL 57.631; Serm. 45.2, CCL 41.517; Sidon., Ep. 7.2.7.
  • 81P.Oxy. IX.1206 (335 .); P.Lips. I.28 = MChr 363 (381 .). . Kaser, op. cit. (. 17), 208209.
  • 82., , P.Oxy. XII.1470.13 (336 .); L.3581 (IV/V .); XVI.1890 (508 .); SB XII.11075 ( V .); PSI IX. 1075 (458 .); P.Michael. 43 (526 .); P.Hamb. I.23 (569 .); SP XX. 145 (VI .); P.Grenf. II.87 (602 .); P.Monac. I.1.1113 (574 .).
  • 83P.Ness. III. 18 (537 .); PMasp. I.67006v.1421 (VI .); P.Oxy. 1.129 = MChr 296 = FIRA III.21 (VI .).
  • 84Lact., Inst. 4.3.15, CSEL 19.280; . Conc. Hipp. (393 .) 1; Brev. Hipp. 13, CCL 149.20/37; CTh 9.43.1 (321 .); 9.13.1 (365/373 .); CJ 5.70.7.1 (530 .); 6.61.8.5a (531 .); 5.17.12 (534 .); Nov. 22.19 (535 .).
  • 85, , , Suet., Vitell. 6; Plin., Ep. 4.2.2; 8.18.4; . Cic., Dom. 37; Liv. 7.16.9; SHA, Pert. 11.12; Did.Jul. 8.9.
  • 86Gaius, Inst. 1.137a; Dig. 1.7.31; 30.114.8; 36.1.23.pr; 37.12.5 ( ); CJ 8.48.3 (293 .); 8.48.4 ().
  • 87, CJ 3.31.6 (224 .); 4.19.16 (294 .); 6.14.1 (286 .); 6.20.6 (244 .); 6.57.2 (293 .); 6.59.1 (294 .); Consult. 6.10 (293 .). , , . Arjava, WLL, 42.
  • 88. . 54; A. Watson, Private law in the rescripts of Carus, Carinus and Numerianus, TRG 41 (1973), 1934, 23, idem, op. cit. (. 4), 2425. Gardner, op. cit. (. 1), 7172, , , .
  • 89Conc. Hipp. 1, CCL 149.20. . Hieronymus, Ep. 107.6 (perfecta aetas et sui iuris); Symm., Ep. 1.6; 9.150 ( , ).
  • 90CTh 8.13.6 + 8.18.9 + 8.19.1 (426 ., ).
  • 91Aug., Serm. 45.2, CCL 41.517; In psalm. 93.17, CCL 39.1318 (dimittunt ut faciant quod volunt)[6]; . In Galat. 39, PL 35.2132; Shaw, op. cit. (. 36), 2024. . , .
  • 92Nov. Val. 35.10 (452) + int; . Lex Rom. Burg. 26; Cod. Eur. 321; Kaser, op. cit. (. 17), 203 n. 10. . CTh 8.18.1.2; 8.18.2; 8.18.9.pr. . CJ 6.61.6.3, .
  • 93CJ 12.3.5; . Nov. 81; Just., Inst. 1.12.4. Ep. 731, , , , ; CTh 9.43.1.3 (321 ., ) - , L 3.
  • 94Kaser, op. cit. (. 17), 203, 213, 497511; , CJ 6.58.11, 6.58.15.1b; Nov. 118; CTh 3.7.1 ( ); Nov. 22.19 ( ).
  • 95., , Gaius, Epit. 1.56; CTh 8.13.2.int; 8.14.1; 8.19.1; 9.43.1; Epit. Cod. Greg. Vis. 3.10.1 (FIRA II.662); interpretationes. . filiusfamilias : Sidon., Ep. 7.2.7; 7.9.21.
  • 96Lex Rom. Burg. 38.1; 14.45 ( ); 22.12 ( , , , . CTh 8.1819, II); 9.4; 26.1.
  • 97Parentes , . , ., , in parentum potestate, CTh 8.18.1 (319 .), CJ 1.3.54.5 (533/534 .), 3.28.37.2 (531 .), 7.71.7 (531 .), his potestatis iure ad parentes reversis, CJ 6.61.2 (428 .), quod parentibus causa emancipationis obtulerint, CTh 8.18.2.interpr. (, V .), , . , , , , CTh 8.18.6.interpr., . . ThLL, s.v.
  • 98Lex Burg. 1; 24.5; 51.12; 75; 78; Cod. Eur. 305; 321; 336; Lex Vis. 4.2.2/13; 4.5.5; 5.2.2; . Zeumer, op. cit. (. 45), 110112, 146148; King, op. cit. (. 45), 243244.
  • 99Form. Tur. 23; , , Gaius, Epit. 1.5.1; . Form. And. 11a; 37; Form. Tur. 21; , , , , Form. Marc. 2.9; 2.13. , , 츭 patria potestas.
  • 100. E. Meyer-Marthaler, Römisches Recht in Rätten im frühen und hohen Mittelalter, Beihefte der Sweitzerischen Zs. für Geschichte 13 (1968), . 131138.


  • [1] . . . : Whatever sons under paternal power [who are advocates] have acquired or should acquire from such a profession or in connection with it, they shall be able to vindicate specifically as their own property after their fathers death, just like the peculium castrense, under a similar rule as that which has been bestowed as a privilege upon soldiers by right of active military service.
  • [2] , , (. . . . ).
  • [3] . , (. . . . ).
  • [4] , , 腻 (.).
  • [5] . . . : When his childrens legal age induces a father to emancipate them and he wishes to see his children as independent heads of households...
  • [6], , (.).
  • [7] . . . : But those who cannot have their property in their legal power because their fathers are still living, or because they are still minors, should be compelled to dispose of it at the moment when they are able to have their fathers [or: parents ?] property in their power or when they have come of age.
  • [8] . . . : Peculium is in the proper sense something which belongs to minors or slaves. For peculium is what a father or a master allows his child or slave to manage as his own.
  • [9] . . . : Ancient custom and the rulings of law have laid down that when children who are in their fathers power reach their majority they should ask the father to set them free. This the father should grant, if he wants.
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